For many sewers, the hardest thing about sewing thick fabrics is getting the right tension on their sewing machine. There are other considerations like needle size and fabric weight, but it’s hard to get around not having enough tension for this fabric.
Tension is the force in the sewing machine that pulls the fabric in to make a stitch. The tension in your machine can be adjusted according to your fabric and desired stitch quality.
If the tension is not set correctly, the fabric will not be sewn together properly and will be loose.
There are a few things you can do to adjust the tension on your sewing machine. On many machines, there is a knob or dial that you can turn to increase or decrease the tension.
Adjusting Sewing machine tension for thick fabric
For thick heavy fabrics such as denim, twill weaves, and linen, the best tension is a 4 or 5 on medium to medium-heavy fabrics
A thicker thread should also be used for sewing thick fabric. This means a size 100 needle is required but can vary depending on the brand of your machine.
If you are experiencing skipped stitches, try adjusting the tension of both upper and lower threads.
Sewing machine tension for thick fabric should be set at a higher number than the tension used for thin fabric. This is because the thicker fabric will require more force to pass through the needle, and too much tension could cause the fabric to break.
For thick fabric, the stitch length should be between 4 – 5mm or 6 for heavyweight fabrics.
To adjust the tension:
Loosen the screw and move the bar toward a higher number (if you want to tighten). If you need to loosen, move the bar toward a lower number. Keep in mind that when the fabric is thicker, the pressure on it will be greater.
The more force needed to push through, the more tension required (especially if multiple layers of fabric are being sewn together).
Sewing machine tension for lightweight fabrics
If you’re sewing light or thin fabric such as lawn, cotton voile, then turn the dial to a lower tension setting such as 2 or 3. The stitch length should be between 1.5 – 2.4mm.
There are a few things you can do to adjust the tension on your sewing machine when working with thin fabrics.
One is to make sure that the bobbin is properly threaded and seated. You can also try using a smaller needle, or loosening the tension a bit.
If you’re still having trouble, you may need to adjust the pressure of the presser foot.
A recommended needle size is 70/10 when working with thin fabric types.
Sewing machine tension for cotton fabric
The sewing machine tension for cotton fabric should be set at a medium-high tension. This is usually around 4 to 5 on most machines. For most sewing machines brands the standard tension is 4.
The key to getting a perfect tension is finding the right balance between too tight and too loose. With a little practice, you’ll be able to find the right setting for your fabric and machine.
If the fabric is too tight, it will cause puckering and distortion. If the tension is too loose, the fabric may not be properly secured and can easily come undone.
When setting the machine tension, it’s important to make sure that the fabric isn’t being pulled too tight as you sew. If the fabric is constantly being pulled taut, it will quickly wear out and can cause the stitches to become loose.
It’s also important to make sure that the fabric isn’t too slack, as this can lead to skipped stitches and poor quality stitching.
What is the best needle size for sewing cotton?
You can use either 80/12 or 90/14 needles for medium-weight fabrics like cotton, wool, and terylene. Keep in mind that the higher the number of threads per inch on your fabric the smaller size needle you will need to correctly penetrate those fibers.
Sewing machine tension for leather
Because leather is a heavyweight fabric, it needs a higher tension setting and a high stitch length. The sewing machine tension for leather should be tight because of its thickness. The recommended tension setting for leather is around 5 or 6.
When the leather is too thick, the stitches will be too tight and will pucker. Conversely, if the tension is too loose, the stitches will be too loose and will not hold the leather together.
Sewing machine tension for denim
If you’re sewing a heavyweight fabric such as denim, then you’ll need to increase the machine’s tension. This is done by turning the dial past the recommended fabric thickness, as indicated by a number or symbol on the dial.
The ideal tension setting for handling thicker fabrics like denim is 6
The tension dial can also be used to adjust the stitch length. If you are sewing through denim, you will need to increase the stitch length. The standard width is around 6mm on most machines.
Sewing machine tension for polyester
Check the tension of the sewing machine by threading a piece of polyester fabric through it. If the fabric is tight, the tension is too high, if the fabric slips through easily, the tension is too low. Adjust the tension accordingly.
When working with a polyester type of fabric, the upper tension of 4 works great but you can adjust if not getting the best results.
If you’re using a straight stitch, set the stitch length to 2.5 or 3mm. For a zigzag stitch, set the stitch length to 4 or 5mm.
Slowly lower the presser foot and guide the fabric under the needle. Keep your hands close to the fabric, especially as it approaches the needle.
Sewing machine tension for quilting
Quilting is a technique for sewing two layers of fabric together. Generally, the top layer of fabric is larger or closer to what one would call “waste” after cutting pieces of fabric for quilt blocks.
Sewing machine tension for quilting is extremely important for the overall look of your quilt. Too much tension can make your quilt top look puckered, while too little tension can cause it to be less than smooth.
To get a perfect tension, you’ll need to adjust the bobbin and needle tensions according to the weight and type of fabric you’re using.
Adjusting sewing machine tension for stretchy fabric
Adjust the tension on your sewing machine to match the fabric.
If you are making a t-shirt, the best setting would be 3. To make stretchy pants, you would want to set your sewing machine to 4.
Be mindful of the type of fabric you are using and whether it is stretchy or loosely woven.
How to adjust Sewing Machine Tension
There is a wide range of tension settings on a sewing machine, which is designed to handle different types of fabrics. A high tension setting is necessary for sewing through multiple layers of heavy fabrics, while a low tension setting is needed for lightweight fabrics.
To adjust the tension on a sewing machine, first, make sure that the thread is properly threaded through the machine.
- Then, locate the tension dial on the front or top of the machine.
- This dial is usually marked with numbers or symbols that indicate the level of tension.
- Turn the dial to the appropriate setting for your fabric type.
- If you are sewing through multiple layers, turn the dial past the recommended fabric thickness to increase tension.
- If you are sewing through one layer of fabric or need a looser stitch, turn the dial toward the lower number settings.
Note: When doing extensive sewing at high speed, it is advisable to slightly drop your upper thread tension one notch (e.g., if your machine is at 4, drop it to 3). This will prevent the thread from becoming too taut and causing problems with puckering or losing seams.
FAQs About Sewing Machine Tension
What is the best sewing machine for thick fabrics?
- Singer 4423 Heavy Duty Sewing Machine
- Janome HD3000 Sewing Machine
- Brother ST371HD Sewing Machine
- Janome HD1000 Sewing Machine
- Singer HD4452 Sewing Machine
What is the easiest fabric to sew?
For beginners, fabrics with a crisp, smooth texture are the easiest because these are more likely to produce even stitches. Stiffer fabrics are also less likely to fray or show irregularities. The most popular type of fabric for beginners is the cotton blend.
What is normal thread tension?
Most of the time, when we use other threads, we start with a tension range of 2.0 to 3.5, which necessitates a change in the tension setting.
My thread bunching up when I sew
If the thread differs in weight, it is likely to pull on them at varying rates, resulting in bunching. Another possibility is that the bobbin casing is loose as a result of a loose screw. Re-tighten it and play lightly with the bobbin thread. It should have some resistance while still allowing the thread to slide smoothly.
What should thread tension?
A properly tensioned seam has little or no waves on both sides. The needle and bobbin threads interlock midway between the materials’ surfaces. If the stitching thread contains loops on the underside, the needle thread must be tightened.